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EAMCET ( Engineering, Agriculture & Medical Common Entrance Test- Andhra) Syllabus Botany


I. WORLD OF PLANT LIFE:
A. Science of Botany: Its Origin, Some important landmarks in the development of Botany, uses of plants in daily life. Differences between plants and animals. B. (i) Diversity in habitats - Mesophytes, Xerophytes, Hydrophytes, Halophytes, Epiphytes, Mangroves (ii) Diversity in forms - Herbs, Shurbs, Trees, Twiners, Lianes (iii) Diversity in life span - Ephemerals, Annuals, Biennials, Perennials(iv) Diversity in nutritional Methods - Parasites, Saprophytes, Symbionts, Autotrophs C. Branches of Botany and applied Botany - Phycology, Mycology, Lichenology, Bacteriology, Virology, Microbiology, Bryology, Pteridology, Morphology, Embryology, Palynology, Anatomy, Cytology, Taxonomy, Ecology, Genetics, Paleo-botany, Agriculture, Horticulture, Forestry, Pharmacology, Plant breeding, Plant pathology, Biotechnology

II. INSTITUTES & BOTANISTS OF INDIA:
A. Contributions of the following institutes - BSI, NBRI, CIMAP, IARI, ICRISAT, FRI, ICAR.
B. Contributions of the following botanists - Birbal Sahni, P. Maheswari, M.O.P. Iyengar, M.S. Swaminathan and K.C. Mehta

III. VEGETATIVE MORPHOLOGY:
A. Root: Characteristics of roots, types of root system, Regions of root, Modifications of root
B. Stem: Characteristics and functions of stem, Types of stems, Types of buds, Types of branching, modifications of stem C. Leaf: Leaf base, stipules, petioles. (Note: Lamina, Margins, apex, surface, texture OMITTED), Venation, phyllotaxy, types of leaves (simple & compound), leaf modifications.

IV. REPRODUCTIVE MORPHOLOGY:
A. Inflorescence: Racemose & cymose inflorescences, mixed and special inflorescences, Terminal inflorescence, Axillary inflorescence & intercalary inflorescence, cauliflory B. Flower:- Structure of flower, sex distribution, symmetry of flower (based on the arrangement), merosity, structural symmetry, position of gynoecium on the thalamus, types of bracts & bracteoles, various types of thalamus, perianth, aestivation, calyx, corolla, Androecium, Gynoecium C. Pollination: Types of pollination, contrivances of self and cross pollination, agents of pollination. D. Embryology: Structure of anther and ovule, types of ovules, structure and development of Embryo sac, Fertilization and post fertilization changes. E. Fruit: Types of fruits - simple, aggregate and multiple, True and false fruits
F. Dispersal of seeds and fruits: Agents of dispersal

V. CLASSIFICATION OF FLOWERING PLANTS:
A. Principles of classification and nomenclature, Bentham & Hookers system of classification
B. Study of the following families:- Malvaceae, Fabaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Asteraceae, Solanaceae, Liliaceae

VI. ECONOMIC BOTANY:
Botanical name, family, morphology of useful part, varieties, economic importance of the following - Paddy, Wheat, Jowar, Bajra, Red gram, Bengal gram, Groundnut, Coconut, Cotton, Jute, Mango, Banana, Neem and Amla

VII. CELL BIOLOGY:
Cell theory, Ultra structure of Eukaryotic cell, differences between plant and animal cells, Chromosomes and Nucleic acids.

VIII. CELL DIVISION:
Mitosis and meiosis

IX. INTERNAL ORGANISATION OF PLANTS:
A. Tissues: Meristems, Simple, complex and secretory tissues B. Tissue systems : Epidermal, Ground and vascular tissue systems. C. Root apex and stem apex D. Anatomy of dicot and monocot roots
E. Anatomy of dicot and monocot stems F. Anatomy of dicot & monocot leaves G. Normal secondary growth in dicot stem

X. BIOTECHNOLOGY:
A. Scope and applications of biotechnology, aspects of biotechnology B. Genetic engineering
C. Tissue culture and singe cell protein, somatic hybridization D. Mushroom cultivation (White button mushrooms)

XI. PLANT KINGDOM:
A. Broad outlines of the classifications (cryptogams & phanerogams) B. Salient features of the major groups - Thallophyta (Algae & Fungi), Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta (Gymnosperms & angiosperms) C. Study of the structure and life history of the following forms:- Spirogyra, Rhizopus, Funaria, Pteris, & Cycas

XII. MICROBIOLOGY:
A. Branches of applied Microbiology and their Importance B. Bacteria: Introduction, distribution, habitat, Structure, Nutrition, reproduction and economic importance C. Viruses: Introduction, structure of TMV & bacteriophage, Multiplication, transmission, symptoms of viral diseases on plants and their control measures.

XIII. PLANT PATHOLOGY:
A. Introduction, brief historical account of plant pathology, classification of plant diseases, general control measures. B. Symptoms, causative organism and control measures of the following diseases -
1. Blast of paddy (Rice) 2. Red rot of sugar cane 3. Grain smut of sorghum 4 . Citrus canker

XIV. PLANTS AND ENVIRONMENT:
A. Introduction, scope of ecology, levels of organization, basic concepts of ecology B. Plant communities - Hydrophytes, Mesophytes, Xerophytes C. Soil - Soil formation, soil profile, components of soil, plant groups in relation to soil characteristics, soil erosion, soil conservation (Note: Vegetation of AP and forests of AP - OMITTED)

XV. CROP IMPROVEMENT:
Introduction, Aims & Objectives of plant breeding, organizations of crop improvement research, methods of plant breeding - Introduction, selection, hybridization, Hybrid vigour, Polyploidy breeding, Mutation breeding

XVI. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY:
A. Water relations of plants: Importance of water, availability of water, bulk flow, diffusion, Water potential, Osmosis, Plasmolysis, Imbibition - Absorption of water by plants - (Active and passive absorption). Ascent of sap - (root pressure theory, cohesion - tension theory) Transpiration - Definition, types of transpiration, Structure of stomata, Mechanism of stomatal opening and closing, factors affecting transpiration, importance of transpiration. B. Mineral Nutrition: Introduction, Macro and Microelements, criteria of essentiality, role of NPK in plant nutrition, Absorption of ions, (Active and passive absorption). Carrier theory (cytochrome pump theory, Lecithin carrier theory) Fertilisers - (Inorganic, Organic, Bio-Fertilizers) - Importance of bio fertilizers. C. Enzymes: Definition, Historical account, Properties, components of enzyme nomenclature and classification of enzymes. Mode of enzyme action D. Photosynthesis: Introduction, historical account, structure of chloroplast, Photosynthetic pigments (Chlorophylls, Carotenoids & Phycobilins), Hills reaction, Emerson enhancement effect, photosystems, Photolysis of water, photophosphorylation, C3 pathway, C4 pathway, CAM pathway, Photorespiration, factors affecting photosynthesis, Importance of photosynthesis. E. Translocation of Organic solutes: Munch’s Hypothesis. F. Respiration: Introduction, Types of respiration, differences between aerobic & anaerobic respiration - Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, Electron Transport System, mechanism of anaerobic respiration, alcoholic fermentation, respiratory quotient (RQ)            G. Nitrogen Metabolism: Forms of Nitrogen, biological nitrogen fixation, (Symbiotic & non symbiotic) Bio-synthesis of proteins (Transcription and Translation), Genetic code and its properties. H. Plant Growth Regulators And Seed Germination: Introduction, Discovery & Physiological effects of auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, abscisic acid and ethylene, Role of hormones in agriculture and horticulture, Photoperiodism, Seed germination - Physiological changes during germination, conditions required for germination, seed vigour, and seed dormancy.