1. ATOMIC STRUCTURE:
Electromagnetic Radiation: Wave nature - Wave Characteristics: Wave length - frequency - Wave number - units to express these quantities - relationship between them. Atomic Spectrum of Hydrogen - different regions of the spectrum - wave number of the spectral lines in these regions (Rydberg's equation),. Lyman, Balmer , Paschen , Bracket and Pfund series. Atomic Models : Rutherford's model, merits and demerits Bohr's Model: Postulates - formulation of the model - Expressions for the energy and radius of the Hydrogen Atomic orbits with derivations - limitations. Zeemen, Stark effects - Sommerfields modifications. Quantum Numbers: Significance - writing quantum numbers for differentiating electrons in atoms - Pauli's exclusion principle. Wave nature of electron: De-Broglie wave equation - Heisenberg's uncertainty principle , Schroedinger's equation (Cartesian coordinates equation only). Orbitals: Shapes of s,p,d orbitals - orbitals energy sequence - aufbau principle - Hund's rule. Electronic configuration of elements (from atomic no: 1 to 30 by nlx method) Stability and magnetic behaviour of atoms based on concepts of electronic configuration.
II. NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY:
Nuclear particles: (Protons, Neutrons) - isotopes, isobars, isotones and Isodiapheres. Nucleus: Relative dimensions of atom and nucleus - nuclear mass defect - mass -energy relation - binding energy - n/p ratio - magic numbers. Nuclear reactions: Writing nuclear reactions in the shortest form of (M(a,b)M') notation, balancing - typical examples of nuclear reactions - nuclear fusion (proton) reactions - nuclear fission (uranium - 235) - Differences between nuclear and Chemical reactions. Radioactivity: Units of radioactivity (Curie, Rutherford and Bacquerel) - natural and artificial radioactivity - disintegration series - Group displacement law. Radioactive disintegration: Rate equation (no derivation) - decay constant - half-life period - numerical problems on radioactive disintegrations - Radioactive isotopes (O18, P32, U238, C14, I131)and their applications
III. PERIODIC CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS:
Periodic Laws and Periodic Table: Periodic laws based on atomic number and electron configuration - Structure of the long form of the periodic table - s,p,d,f blocks - outer electronic configuration of elements of s,p,d and f blocks. Periodic trends: Trends down the group and across the period in respect of atomic size, ionic radius, Oxidation State, ionization potential, electron affinity and electronegativity - reasons for the trends.
IV. CHEMICAL BONDING:
Ionic Bonding: Nature, factors favourable for the bond formation - Effect of ionization potential, electron affinity and electro negativity - Born - Haber cycle for sodium chloride crystal formation - Face centered cubic lattice structure of sodium chloride - Body centered cubic lattice structure of cesium chloride (diagramatic illustrations only) - coordination number of metal ions in the crystals of sodium chloride and cesium chloride. Properties of ionic substances. Covalent Bond: Nature - octet rule and electron dot formula of simple molecules (BeCl2, BF3, CO2, NH3, H2O,PCl5, SF6, CH4, C2-H4, C2H6) - postulates of valence bond theory (qualitative treatment) - overlapping of orbitals - sigma and pi bonds - dipole moment (qualitative aspect) of simple molecules. (HCl, H2O, SO2, NH3, CH4-, CCl4) - properties of covalent substances. Hybridization of Orbitals: sp, sp2,sp3, dsp3, d2sp3 hybridizations - shapes of simple molecules (BeCl2, BCl3, CH4, C2H6, C2H4, C2H2, NH3, H2O, PCl5, SF6) Bond Lengths - bond angles and bond energies - postulates of valance shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory - application to geometry of covalent molecules (beryllium chloride, boron tri-chloride, water and ammonia) Hydrogen Bond: Concept - inter and intra molecular Hydrogen bonds - typical examples.
V. STOICHIOMETRY: Definition : Stoichiometry, Stoichiometric Equation, Stoichiometric amounts - Examples Mole Concept: Gram atom, Gram molecule, Definition of mole, mass, formula weight - Calculations. Chemical reactions and Numerical calculations based on weight - weight, weight - volume , volume - volume relationships Calculation of empirical and molecular formulae of Carbon compounds - oxidation number - Redox reactions - Calculation of oxidation number - Balancing of redox reactions by ion - electron (half reaction) method and oxidation number method
VI. GASEOUS STATE:
Gas laws - Boyle's law, Charle's law, Avogadro's law - statement and numerical problems.Ideal gas equation: PV=nRT, values of R - numerical problems based on gas equation. Graham's law of diffusion - Statement - numerical problems. Dalton's law of partial pressures: Statement - numerical problems. Kinetic theory of Gases: Postulates - derivation of PV= 1/3 mnc2 - Deducing gas laws from kinetic gas laws (Boyles law, Charles law, Dalton's law, Graham's law) from kinetic gas equation - RMS velocity - most probable velocity - Mathematical relationship between the three. Average kinetic energy of the molecules.
Definition of solution: Solvent - solute, methods of expressing concentrations of solutions - molarity, molality, normality - mole fraction methods - Numerical problems. Vapour Pressure: Definition - effect of temperature - Raoult's law - Numerical problems.
VIII. ACIDS AND BASES:
Theories of Acids and Bases - Arrhenius acid - base concept, limitations, Lowry - Bronsted concept - examples - limitations - Lewis Theory - examples. Ionic Product of Water: pH of aqueous solutions - (include both strong and weak acids and bases) - buffer solutions - types of buffers, buffer action - calculation of pH of acid buffers. Indicators: Acid -base indicators - pH range - selection of indicators for acid - base titrations. Hydrolysis of Salts: Definition - examples of different salts.
IX. ELECTRO CHEMISTRY:
Metallic Conductors - Electrolytes - Non-electrolytes - Arrhenius theory of ionization - Faraday's laws - Numerical problems. Galvanic Cells : Definition - examples - cell notation - writing of cells and cell reactions. Nernst Equation - e.m.f. calculation
X. CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM AND CHEMICAL KINETICS:
Chemical Equilibrium: Reversible reactions - chemical equilibrium - dynamic nature - examples of chemical equilibrium, law of mass action - equilibrium constant - characteristics of equilibrium constant - factors affecting equilibrium - application of law of mass action to Haber's process (for Ammonia) . Le Chatelier's Principle: Statement and applications to Haber's process (for Ammonia). Chemical Kinetics: Rate of reaction (elementary treatment) factors (concentration - temperature, catalyst) affecting rate of reaction, rate law, rate constant and its units Order and Molecularity - First order Rate equation and half life - collision theory of reaction rates (elementary treatment)
XI. CHEMICAL ENERGETICS:
Chemical energetics: Internal energy - enthalpy - exothermic and endothermic reactions - heats of reaction; formation, combustion, neutralization - Hess Law - Numerical problems.
XII. SURFACE CHEMISTRY:
Adsorption and absorption - Physical and Chemical adsorption - distinguishing properties - Adsorption of Gases on Metals - Adsorption from solutions (Elementary treatment). Colloidal State: True and Colloidal solutions - explanation of terms - Dispersion medium, Dispersed phase, lyophillic and lyophobic sols using the examples - smoke, cloud, blood, milk, starch solution and gold sol. Micelles-cleaning action of soap Emulsions: emulsifying agent and emulsification - its applications Catalysts: Explanation of terms-Homogeneous and Heterogeneous catalysis, Distinction with suitable examples - auto catalysis with one example
XIII. HYDROGEN AND ITS COMPOUNDS:
Water: Hardness of Water and its removal Heavy Water: Isotopes of hydrogen - heavy water - electrolytic preparation - properties and uses of heavy Water. Hydrogen Peroxide: Preparation (laboratory, electrolytic and auto oxidation) and concentration, properties of H2O2 as oxidizing agent and reducing agent, structure and uses of H2O2
XIV. ALKALI AND ALKALINE EARTH METALS: General Characteristics: Electronic configuration - position in the long form of the periodic table - trends in physical properties, chemical properties with reference to oxides, halides and carbonates. Sodium and Magnesium: Occurrence - extraction of sodium (Castner and Down process) - extraction of Magnesium (from Carnalite and Magnasite) - Typical physical and chemical properties - Uses. Alloys of magnesium (Magnalium and Electron) preparation, properties and uses of the following compounds sodium hydroxide, sodium bicarbonate, magnesium - sulphate, Plaster of Paris, Lime Mortar and Gypsum.